SQL Commands

Database Tables

A database most often contains one or more tables. Each table is identified by a name (e.g. “Customers” or “Orders”). Tables contain records (rows) with data.
Below is an example of a table called “Persons”:

P_Id LastName FirstName  Address City
1 Hansen Ola Timoteivn            Sandnes
2 Svendson Tove Borgvn                Sandnes
3 Pettersen Kari Storgt                    Stavanger

The table above contains three records (one for each person) and five columns (P_Id, LastName, FirstName, Address, and City).


SQL Statements

Most of the actions you need to perform on a database are done with SQL statements.
The following SQL statement will select all the records in the “Persons” table:

SELECT * FROM Persons

In this tutorial we will teach you all about the different SQL statements.


Keep in Mind That…

  • SQL is not case sensitive

Semicolon after SQL Statements?

Some database systems require a semicolon at the end of each SQL statement.
Semicolon is the standard way to separate each SQL statement in database systems that allow more than one SQL statement to be executed in the same call to the server.
We are using MS Access and SQL Server 2000 and we do not have to put a semicolon after each SQL statement, but some database programs force you to use it.


SQL DML and DDL

SQL can be divided into two parts: The Data Manipulation Language (DML) and the Data Definition Language (DDL).
The query and update commands form the DML part of SQL:

  • SELECT – extracts data from a database
  • UPDATE – updates data in a database
  • DELETE – deletes data from a database
  • INSERT INTO – inserts new data into a database

The DDL part of SQL permits database tables to be created or deleted. It also defines indexes (keys), specifies links between tables, and imposes constraints between tables. The most important DDL statements in SQL are:

  • CREATE DATABASE – creates a new database
  • ALTER DATABASE – modifies a database
  • CREATE TABLE – creates a new table
  • ALTER TABLE – modifies a table
  • DROP TABLE – deletes a table
  • CREATE INDEX – creates an index (search key)
  • DROP INDEX – deletes an index 

The CREATE DATABASE Statement

The CREATE DATABASE statement is used to create a database.

SQL CREATE DATABASE Syntax

CREATE DATABASE database_name


CREATE DATABASE Example

Now we want to create a database called “my_db”.
We use the following CREATE DATABASE statement:

CREATE DATABASE my_db

Database tables can be added with the CREATE TABLE statement.

The CREATE TABLE Statement

The CREATE TABLE statement is used to create a table in a database.

SQL CREATE TABLE Syntax

CREATE TABLE table_name
(
column_name1 data_type,
column_name2 data_type,
column_name3 data_type,
….
)

The data type specifies what type of data the column can hold. For a complete reference of all the data types available in MS Access, MySQL, and SQL Server.


CREATE TABLE Example

Now we want to create a table called “Persons” that contains five columns: P_Id, LastName, FirstName, Address, and City.
We use the following CREATE TABLE statement:

CREATE TABLE Persons
(
P_Id int,
LastName varchar(255),
FirstName varchar(255),
Address varchar(255),
City varchar(255)
)

The P_Id column is of type int and will hold a number. The LastName, FirstName, Address, and City columns are of type varchar with a maximum length of 255 characters.
The empty “Persons” table will now look like this:

P_Id              LastName          FirstName             Address           City

The empty table can be filled with data with the INSERT INTO statement.

 

The INSERT INTO statement is used to insert new records in a table.

The INSERT INTO Statement

The INSERT INTO statement is used to insert a new row in a table.

SQL INSERT INTO Syntax

It is possible to write the INSERT INTO statement in two forms.
The first form doesn’t specify the column names where the data will be inserted, only their values:

INSERT INTO table_name
VALUES (value1, value2, value3,…)

The second form specifies both the column names and the values to be inserted:

INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2, column3,…)
VALUES (value1, value2, value3,…)


SQL INSERT INTO Example

We have the following “Persons” table:

P_Id LastName FirstName Address City
1 Hansen Ola Timoteivn 10 Sandnes
2 Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes
3 Pettersen Kari Storgt 20 Stavanger

Now we want to insert a new row in the “Persons” table.
We use the following SQL statement:

INSERT INTO Persons
VALUES (4,’Nilsen’, ‘Johan’, ‘Bakken 2’, ‘Stavanger’)

The “Persons” table will now look like this:

P_Id LastName FirstName Address City
1 Hansen Ola Timoteivn 10 Sandnes
2 Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes
3 Pettersen Kari Storgt 20 Stavanger
4 Nilsen Johan Bakken 2 Stavanger


Insert Data Only in Specified Columns

It is also possible to only add data in specific columns.
The following SQL statement will add a new row, but only add data in the “P_Id”, “LastName” and the “FirstName” columns:

INSERT INTO Persons (P_Id, LastName, FirstName)
VALUES (5, ‘Tjessem’, ‘Jakob’)

The “Persons” table will now look like this:

P_Id LastName FirstName Address City
1 Hansen Ola Timoteivn 10 Sandnes
2 Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes
3 Pettersen Kari Storgt 20 Stavanger
4 Nilsen Johan Bakken 2 Stavanger
5 Tjessem Jakob

 

The SQL SELECT Statement

The SELECT statement is used to select data from a database.
The result is stored in a result table, called the result-set.

SQL SELECT Syntax

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name

and

SELECT * FROM table_name

Note Note: SQL is not case sensitive. SELECT is the same as select

The SQL SELECT DISTINCT Statement

In a table, some of the columns may contain duplicate values. This is not a problem, however, sometimes you will want to list only the different (distinct) values in a table.
The DISTINCT keyword can be used to return only distinct (different) values.

SQL SELECT DISTINCT Syntax

SELECT DISTINCT column_name(s)
FROM table_name


SELECT DISTINCT Example

The “Persons” table:

P_Id LastName FirstName Address City
1 Hansen Ola Timoteivn 10 Sandnes
2 Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes
3 Pettersen Kari Storgt 20 Stavanger

Now we want to select only the distinct values from the column named “City” from the table above.

We use the following SELECT statement:

SELECT DISTINCT City FROM Persons

The result-set will look like this:

City
Sandnes
Stavanger

You can also visit 

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1xWjS4oUdU-Nn3kvBabPITPoIRGuSjIWrgbOHyuLBSIM/edit

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